Published November 2013

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Overview

  • Type 2 diabetes accounts for 95% of the 25.8 million diabetes cases in the U.S1
  • Obesity is a major independent risk factor for developing the disease, and more than 90% of type 2 diabetics are overweight or obese2
  • Modest weight loss, as little as 5% of total body weight, can help to improve type 2 diabetes in patients who are overweight or obese3
  • Metabolic and bariatric surgery may result in resolution or improvement of type 2 diabetes independent of weight loss4

Prevalence

  • Diabetes affects 8.3% of the total U.S. population (25.8 million people)5

    • 18.8 million people have been diagnosed
    • 7 million people are unaware they suffer from the disease
    • About 95% of the diabetes population has type 2 diabetes6
  • Increases in type 2 diabetes cases across the country associated with higher obesity rates and rising age of population7

    • More than one-third (35.7%) of adults are obese; rate nearly tripled between 1960-20109
  • While children and adolescents are increasingly being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, the CDC notes is it difficult to estimate the disease’s prevalence in this population because it can go undiagnosed for long periods of time10, 11

    • The rise in diabetes diagnoses is attributed to increasing childhood obesity rates, which have tripled since the 1980s, with approximately 17% (or 12.5 million) of children aged 2-19 suffering from obesity12
  • African-Americans and the elderly are disproportionately affected by diabetes13
    • 18.7% of all African-Americans over twenty years old have diabetes, compared to 10.2% of whites
    • 26.9% of Americans age 65 and older have diabetes, compared to 11.3% of adults over 20

Pre-Diabetes

  • About 79 million Americans, or 35% of people 20 or older have pre-diabetes,14 while half of adults over 65 are affected by the disease15

    • Up to 70% of patients with pre-diabetes eventually develop diabetes16
    • People with pre-diabetes are also at risk for heart disease and stroke17
  • People with diabetes have double the mortality risk of similar-aged people without diabetes, and the disease is the seventh leading cause of death in the U.S.18

  • Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure, non-traumatic lower-limb amputations, new cases of blindness among adults, and it is associated with increased risk of:

    • Heart disease and stroke
    • High blood pressure
    • Nervous system disease
    • Kidney disease
    • Blindness
    • Amputations
    • Dental disease
    • Pregnancy complications

    Impact of Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery on Type 2 Diabetes

    • Meta-analysis of 22,000 bariatric surgery patients in 136 studies (1990-2003) found bariatric mean excess weight loss was 61.2%, and 86% of patients saw improvement or resolution of type 2 diabetes19
  • Gastric bypass may result in resolution or improvement of type 2 diabetes independent of weight loss by decreasing levels of ghrelin – appetite stimulating hormone secreted by the stomach20

  • People with morbid obesity who had gastric bypass surgery significantly reduced long-term mortality from diabetes by 92% and from “any cause” by 40%21 (NEJM, 2007)

Surgical Treatment vs. Medical Therapy – Comparative Studies

  • Meta-analysis of 796 participants in 11 studies comparing metabolic and bariatric surgery to nonsurgical treatment for obesity found surgery results in greater weight loss and higher type 2 diabetes remission rates22 (BMJ, 2013)

    • Studies with more than six months follow up showed surgical patients lost an average of 57 more pounds than participants in nonsurgical weight loss programs, and were 22 times more likely to see their type 2 diabetes abate
  • Head-to-head studies comparing bariatric surgery to medical therapy found bariatric surgery superior to medical treatment in producing type 2 diabetes remission, even before weight loss

    • Cleveland Clinic study showed within one year, diabetes remission rates with bariatric surgery were about 40% (42% gastric bypass, 37% gastric sleeve) compared to about 12% for patients treated with the best pharmacotherapy available; patients had BMI between 27 and 4323(NEJM, 2012)
    • Catholic University/New York-Presbyterian/Weill Cornell Medical Center showed remission rates were about 85% for bariatric surgery (75% gastric bypass, 95% biliopancreatic diversion) and zero for medical therapy in patients with BMI greater than 35, after two years24 (NEJM, 2012)
      • In surgical groups, both weight loss and preoperative BMI were not predictors of diabetes control, suggesting such surgical procedures may be independent of weight loss
  • 73% of gastric band patients with type 2 diabetes experience remission two years after surgery, a 5 times higher resolution rate than those receiving convention therapy25 (JAMA, 2008)
    • Conventional therapy includes access to general physician, nurse and diabetes educator and medical therapies including pharmaceutical agents, individual lifestyle modification programs and physical activity
    • Authors note weight regain after surgery may put patients at risk for type 2 diabetes relapse

Long Term Results of Surgical Treatment

  • 24% of patients who have bariatric surgery experience complete, long-term – five years or more – remission of their type 2 diabetes; 26% experience partial remission and 34% improve from baseline26(Annals of Surgery, 2013)
  • Six years after surgery, 62% of gastric bypass patients with severe obesity – BMI 35 or higher – experienced type 2 diabetes remission, compared to 6-8% in control groups27 (JAMA, 2012)
  • Ten years after intervention, 7% of surgery patients have type 2 diabetes, compared to 24% of nonsurgically treated patients28 (NEJM, 2004)

Surgery in Patients with Lower BMIs

  • Compared to nonsurgical treatments, bariatric surgery for patients with mild-to-moderate obesity – BMIs between 30 and 35 – and type 2 diabetes produces better intermediate glucose outcomes one-to-two years following treatment29 (JAMA, 2013)

  • For patients with type 2 diabetes and mild-to-moderate obesity, laparoscopic gastric band surgery is a more effective treatment than non-surgical therapy30 (Annals of Internal Medicine, 2006)
    • After two years, only 3% of surgical patients continued to have metabolic syndrome, compared to 24% of non-surgical patients, who were treated with very-low-calorie diets, pharmacotherapy and lifestyle change

Costs Associated with Type 2 Diabetes

  • Total costs of diagnosed diabetes rose 41% in five years, from $174 billion in 2007 to $245 billion in 201231

  • More than 1-in-5 health care dollars in the U.S. are spent on diabetes care with half directly attributable to treatment32

  • Indirect costs, including absenteeism, reduced work productivity, inability to work and lost workers due to premature death, account for $68.6 billion

  • Diabetes patients incur average medical costs of $7,900 for treatment; total medical expenses are 2.3 times higher than for people without diabetes33

  • Metabolic surgery has been shown to be associated with reductions in overall health care costs in patients with type 2 diabetes34
    • Annual health care costs decreased 34.2% after two years and by 70.5% after three years
    • Associated with elimination of diabetes medication in nearly 85% of patients two years after surgery

Guidelines and Recommendations

  • American Diabetes Association recommends bariatric surgery be considered for adults with type 2 diabetes who have a BMI greater than 35, in particular if diabetes or associated comorbidities are difficult to control with lifestyle and pharmacologic therapy35

    • Notes there is “insufficient evidence” for adults with BMI less than 35 outside of a research protocol
  • 2011 statement from International Diabetes Federation said surgery was “effective, safe and cost-effective therapy” for patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes, noting it significantly improves glycemic control in severely obese patients with the disease36 (Diabetes Medicine, 2011)

References

  1. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (2013). National Diabetes Statistics, 2011. Accessed from diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/statistics/#fast October, 2013
  2. World Health Organization. Obesity and Overweight Fact Sheer. Accessed from http://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/media/en/gsfs_obesity.pdf October 2013
  3. Office of the Surgeon General – U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Overweight and obesity: health consequences. Accessed March 2012 from http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/topics/obesity/calltoaction/fact_consequences.html
  4. Schauer, P. R., Burguera, B., Ikramuddin, S., et al. (2003). Effect of laparoscopic roux-en y gastric bypass on type 2 diabetes mellitus. Annals of Surgery. 238(4) p. 480. Accessed from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1360104/ October 2013
  5. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (2013). National Diabetes Statistics, 2011. Accessed from diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/statistics/#fast October, 2013
  6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2012). Diabetes Report Card. p. 1 Accessed from http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/pdf/diabetesreportcard.pdf October, 2013
  7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2012). Diabetes Report Card. p. 2. Accessed from http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/pdf/diabetesreportcard.pdf October, 2013
  8. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2013). Adult Obesity Facts: Obesity is Common, Serious and Costly. Accessed from http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/adult.html October, 2013
  9. Go AS, Mozaffarian D, Roger VL, Benjamin EJ, et. al. on behalf of the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee (2013). Heart disease and stroke statistics—2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation 127:e6-e245. Accessed from http://www.heart.org/idc/groups/heart-public/@wcm/@sop/@smd/documents/downloadable/ucm_319588.pdf October, 2013.
  10. World Health Organization (2003). Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health p. 2. Accessed from http://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/media/en/gsfs_obesity.pdf October, 2013
  11. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013). Children and Diabetes — More Information. November, 2013.
  12. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013). Data & Statistics: Obesity Rates Among all Children in the United States. Accessed from http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/childhood.html October, 2013.
  13. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (2013). National Diabetes Statistics, 2011. Accessed from diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/statistics/#fast October, 2013
  14. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011). National Diabetes Fact Sheet, 2011. p. 1. Accessed from http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/pdf/ndfs_2011.pdf October, 2013
  15. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011). Accessed from www.cdc.gov/features/diabetesfactsheet/ October, 2013
  16. Nathan D.M., Davidson, M.B., DeFronzo, R.A. Impaired Fasting Glucose and Impaired Glucose Tolerance. Diabetes Care. Accessed from care.diabetesjournals.org/content/30/3/753.full October, 2013
  17. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011). National Diabetes Fact Sheet, 2011. p. 1. Accessed from http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/pdf/ndfs_2011.pdf October, 2013
  18. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (2011). Accessed from http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/statistics/#Deaths October, 2013
  19. Buchwald, H., Avidor, Y., Braunwald, E., et al. (2004). Bariatric surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of the American Medical Association. 292(12) Accessed from http://jama.ama-assn.org/content/292/14/1724.full October, 2013
  20. Schauer, P. R., Burguera, B., Ikramuddin, S., et al. (2003). Effect of laparoscopic roux-en y gastric bypass on type 2 diabetes mellitus. Annals of Surgery. 238(4) p. 480 Accessed from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1360104/ October, 2013
  21. Adams, T. D., Gress, R. E., Smith, S. C., et al. (2007). Long-term mortality after gastric bypass surgery. New England Journal of Medicine. 357 pp. 753-761Accessed from http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa066603 October, 2013
  22. Gloy, V.L., Briel, M., Bhatt, D.L., et. al. (2013.) Bariatric surgery versus non-surgical treatment for obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. British Medical Journal. Accessed from http://www.bmj.com/content/347/bmj.f5934 November, 2013
  23. Schauer, P. R., Kashyap, S. R., Wolski, K., et al. (2012). Bariatric surgery vs. intensive medical therapy in obese patients with diabetes. New England Journal of Medicine. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1200225
  24. Mingrone, G., Panunzi, S., De Gaetano, A., et al. (2012). Bariatric surgery vs. conventional medical therapy for type 2 diabetes. New England Journal of Medicine.DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1200111
  25. Dixon, J.B., O’Brien, P. E., Playfair, J., et al. (2008). Adjustable gastric banding and conventional therapy for type 2 diabetes. Journal of the American Medical Association. 299(3) pp. 316-323 Accessed from http://jama.ama-assn.org/content/299/3/316.full.pdf+html October, 2013
  26. Brethauer, S.A., Aminian A., Romero-Talamás H., et. al. (2013). Can Diabetes Be Surgically Cured? Long-Term Metabolic Effects of Bariatric Surgery in Obese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Annals of Surgery. Accessed from http://journals.lww.com/annalsofsurgery/Abstract/publishahead/Can_Diabetes_Be_Surgically_Cured__Long_Term.98314.aspx October, 2013
  27. Adams T.D., Davidson L.E., Litwin S.E., et. al. (2012). Health Benefits of Gastric Bypass Surgery After 6 Years. Journal of the American Medical Association. Accessed from http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleID=1360861 October, 2013
  28. Sjöström L., Lindroos A.K., Peltonen, M., et. al. (2004). Lifestyle, Diabetes, and Cardiovascular Risk Factors 10 Years after Bariatric Surgery. New England Journal of Medicine. Accessed from http://topsurgeoninamerica.com/images/swedish_bariatrics_study.pdf October, 2013
  29. Maggard-Gibbons M., Maglione M., Livhits M., et. al. Bariatric Surgery for Weight Loss and Glycemic Control in Nonmorbidly Obese Adults With Diabetes: A Systematic Review. Journal of the American Medical Association. Accessed from http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1693893 October, 2013
  30. O’Brien P.E., Dixon J.B., Laurie C., et. al. (2006). Treatment of Mild to Moderate Obesity with Laparoscopic Adjustable
  31. Gastric Banding or an Intensive Medical Program. Annals of Internal Medicine. p. 625. Accessed from http://www.rima.org/web/medline_pdf/AnnInternMed2006_625-33.pdf October, 2013
  32. American Diabetes Association (2013). Economic Costs of Diabetes in the U.S. in 2012 Diabetes Care. p. 1. Accessed from http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/early/2013/03/05/dc12-2625.full.pdf+html October, 2013
  33. American Diabetes Association. (2012). The Cost of Diabetes. Advocate. Accessed from http://www.diabetes.org/advocate/resources/cost-of-diabetes.html October, 2013
  34. American Diabetes Association. (2012). The Cost of Diabetes. Advocate. Accessed from http://www.diabetes.org/advocate/resources/cost-of-diabetes.html October, 2013.
  35. Makary M., Clarke J., Shore A., et al. (2010). Medication Utilization and Annual Health Care Costs in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Before and After Bariatric Surgery. Archives of Surgery. 145(8) pp. 726-731
  36. American Diabetes Association. (2013). Diabetes Management Guidelines. Accessed from http://www.ndei.org/ADA-2013-Guidelines-Obesity-Treatment.aspx November, 2013
  37. Dixon J.B., Zimmet P., Alberti K.G., et. al. (2011). Bariatric Surgery: An IDF Statement for Obese Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Medicine. Accessed from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3123702/ October, 2013.